|Republic of Karasem
|Motto: Persatuan, Keberagaman, Kemakmuran, Maju
United, Diversity, Prosperity, Educated
|Anthem: Untuk Negara kita
For our Country
|Location||Northeast Aisai/Southeast Asia|
|-||President||H. Ahmad Jalaludin|
|Legislature||National Representative Committee (MPR)|
|-||Upper house||Representative Senate (DPR)|
|-||Lower house||Regional Representative (DPD)|
|-||Established day||February 28 1942|
|-||Admission to Independence||December 27 1949|
99,944 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|-||Per capita||$ 11,049|
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|Drives on the||left|
The Republic of Karasem (Karaseman: Republik Karasem) is a country in the Southeast Asia. It consists of an archipelago in the South China Sea. The nation is located in the heart of Southeast Asia. Its neighbors are Indonesia in the south and southwest, Singapore and Malaysia in the west and Thailand, Vietnam and Laos in the North. The capital of Karasem is in Kota Baru which located within Cibebek Province. The largest city in Karasem is Meriah in North Cikulon Province, followed by Cibebek and Medang.
Republic of Karasem is a presidential republic country which president run as the executive power and national representative as legislative power. The current leader is President H. Ahmad Jalaludin who was elected in 2007 and later in 2012 for his second term until 2017 from the Democrats Party of Karasem.
Karasem is a devoloping country in the transition into market economy. With GDP over 1 trillion, Karasem is one of the largest economy power in Southeast Asia, as well as being part of ASEAN and Next Eleven with its economy based on the mining (natural gas, oil), trading, agriculture and tourism. Meriah as the largest city of Karasem host various international corporations and industries.
Karasem has population 114,590,520 as for 2010 census result with largest city, Meriah has population 8 millions people in 2010 while its metropolitan area, Greater Meriah-Muara Karang has population over 21 millions people making it the 3rd largest in Southeast Asia after Jakarta and Manila. Karasem has a very diverse demographic consisting of Malays as the indigenous population of Karasem and the majority ethnic making 45% of national population, Javanese people making about 24% of population, Keshanese making the third largest consisting 6.77% of population while the major minorities consist of Champs, Han Chinese, Sundanese making up about 20% of total population.
- 1 History
- 2 Provinces and Districts (Kabupaten)
- 3 Politics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Demography
- 6 Culture
- 7 Economy
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Public Services
Karasem was in the middle of Sundaland area on the prehistory prior to the 'disappearance' of this region under water leaving Karasem islands in the middle of South China Sea. According to the archaeologist, Karasem already populated since the 2,000 years ago by Austronesian Proto-Malay people from the mainland asia according to the most current believed theory.
Latest study suggest that Cikulon Island and Kasem Island settled or influenced by Austroasiatic speaking people in around 1-3rd century with the found of its influence on the early transcription of the Beranta Indera Kingdom and the uses of loanword from neigboring Khmer Language though the proofs are consindered weak.
Indianized Kingdom era
First known civilization in Karasem islands is Beranta Indera Kingdom dating back in 578 CE based on the Karagbatu Inscription found in its former capital, Vijaya (Ketapang) near modern day Ketapang. During its largest extend under the reign of King Virahman III (614-679), Beranta Indera territory includes Kasem Island, western Natuna Island and northern Cikulon Island.
In 705 Srivijaya managed to annex Beranta Indera. According toward Chinese inscription, the Port City of Sai-nga (modern day Kota Barat) was a major trading port on the region serving the merchants from various location and sells the local products of Nutmegs, Cloves and other spices related product originated from Maritime Southeast Asia Islands. Srivijaya empire extant in Karaseman Archipelago includes whole modern day Karasem Territory includes the neighboring port in Champa.
During the Srivijaya decline in 1005, Kingdom of Melayu Anyar emerged in Northern Cikulon with its capital of Malayanagara by the remains of former Beranta Indera Royal Lineage. King Kertabumi leads this newly formed Hindu Kingdom to pacify whole Cikulon Island and later Kasem and Natuna island. Prabu Muda (1144-1190) managed to conquer part of Serawak in Borneo and vassalize several minor states in Ketapang. Melayu Anyar later conquered by Singhasari in 1255.
In the North, under the sphere of Tang dynasty, Keshan Dynasty formed on 871 and became the vassal of Tang Dynasty (later in 930 become independent). Keshan is the first and only Sinosphere state in Karaseman Archipelago and exist for more than 1000 century until its annexed by Republic of Karasem in 1955.
After Singhasari, Majapahit taken over Karasem. in 1364 Majapahit navy captured Palembang, putting an end to the Srivijayan kingdom. Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighbouring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytisers began entering the area. After its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit power began to decline and was unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca. Dates for the end of the Majapahit Empire range from 1478 to 1520. A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royal family moved east to the island of Bali at the end of Majapahit power.
The Sultanate era
Sultanate of Jaya was the first known Sultanate in Karasem. It was founded in 1402 in Jaya island by Sultan Syamsudin from Sultanate of Samudera Passai. This sultanate become in their glory state under the rule of Sultan Syah (1501-1542) which it rules from Jaya island to some of Southern Sumatra area.
Colonization of the West
Beyond the Independences
After more than 350 years under colonialization, Karasem under Republic of Indonesia finally got their independences. Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945 also include Karasem area to be Indonesian teritory and being a self province, Province of East Malacca (Melaka Timur). Atleast until 3 September 1945, Allied forces arrive in Ketapang. Allied forces was came to returned japanese forces there to their countries and clear the area. However, With British assistance, the Dutch landed their Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) forces in Meriah and Jayakarta. The republicans didn't accept them and try to resintaced them with former japanese forces's guns. In 15 November 1945, a resistance attacked allied forces and dutch forces in Jayakarta and killed hundrets of them. They were using sharpened bamboo and some japanese rifles to did it. Later in 5 December 1945, the payback attack declared by the Allied forces and killed atleast 469 from republicans and 87 from allied forces during the class.
Another resistance was in Cibebek on 15 January 1946 with dutch forces, Pondok Daun on 24 January 1946 also with Dutch and in Kendall on 4 February 1946. More other minor resistance until November 1946 in Melaka Timur. The major one is in Yaharta, 9 November 1946 which killed more than 500 republicans. Respecting to those conflict, the Linggadjati Agreement, also known as the Cheribon Agreement, was a political accord concluded on 15 November 1946 by the Dutch administration and the unilaterally declared Republic of Indonesia. Negotiations took place 11–12 November. The Dutch side was represented by Lieutenant General Governor Hubertus van Mook, the Indonesian side by Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir. one of the entry was both side would be in ceasefire.
On 25 March 1947 the Lower House of the Dutch parliament ratified a 'stripped down' version of the treaty, which was not accepted by the Republic. Both sides soon accused the other of violating the agreement. At midnight on 20 July 1947, the Dutch launched a major military offensive called Operatie Product, with the intent of conquering the Republic. Claiming violations of the Linggajati Agreement, the Dutch described the campaign as Politionele acties ('police actions') to restore law and order. This used to be the task of the KNIL. However, at the time the majority of the Dutch troops in Indonesia belonged to the Royal Netherlands Army. Soon after the end of WWII, 25,000 volunteers (among them 5,000 marines) had been sent overseas. They were later followed by larger numbers of conscripts from the Netherlands. In the offensive, Dutch forces drove Republican troops out of parts of Sumatra, East and West Java, and Melaka area.
International reaction to the Dutch actions was negative. Neighbouring Australia and newly independent India were particularly active in supporting the Republic's cause in the UN, as was the Soviet Union and, most significantly, the United States. Dutch ships continued to be boycotted from loading and unloading by Australian waterside workers, a blockade that began in September 1945. The United Nations Security Council became directly involved in the conflict, establishing a Good Offices Committee to sponsor further negotiations, making the Dutch diplomatic position particularly difficult. A ceasefire, called for by UN resolution, was ordered by the Dutch and Sukarno on 4 August 1947. The United Nations Security Council brokered the Renville Agreement in an attempt to rectify the collapsed Linggarjati Agreement. The agreement was ratified in January 1948 and recognised a cease-fire along the so-called 'Van Mook line'; an artificial line which connected up the most advanced Dutch positions. one of this areement was to create a new Dutch area named NK (Netherland Karasem) which this lead to the future split between Karasem and Indonesia.
As the reaction to the agreement, residents of Malang in East Jaya area made a civil riot to NK government that established recently in the area. On 27 January 1948 morning a group of people start to threw some stone and shot the local NK office that damaged a lot of this office. in the afternoon, a backup of NK troops came and start attacking people of Malang. With the underarmed people the local residents faced the lost of 67 lives and over 650 buildings structures damaged. Another resistant also established in Ciasem, north of Cibebek which a big failures that kills 27 resident and almost 60% structures of the area damaged. As a concinderation of the riots in East Malacca, both side try to made a treaty in Karangutara, Cibebek on 21 June 1948 (known as Karangutara Treaty I). The result was pretty distressing for Indonesian side as most of NK area become no man's land and NK became a own nation outside RIS.
As a note, Netherland Karasem was a part of colonies outside dutch teritory. Many area of NK was a no man's land. By July 1948 negotiations were in deadlock and the Netherlands pushed unilaterally towards Van Mook’s concept. Negotiation for NK's possition with Indonesia's side which supported by NK citizens in Kota Meriah sea didn't create any agreement between both sides. During September-December 1948 the local citizens of Netherland Karasem do full attack to relase NK into Indonesia side, this attack was done in 19 November 1948 which made Ketapang, and Cibebek area taken into NK for 24 hours before the dutch try to finished them. In 20 November 1948 a payback attack from Dutch to the republicans who was taken over NK's government possition. This lead 217 dies and the possition back into dutch hand.
In 27 January 1949 Karai operation begun with an attack from Dutch side to major cities especially Ketapang and Meriah. The goals was for taken over whole Karaseman's land into NK side not Indonesia side. Meriah at that time working as a emergency government of Malaka Timur Province easily taken over because of the underpowered local forces. International reaction to this was a big condemn from UN to Dutch with the embargo of NK governemnt. This attack causes mass destruction of the cities that hit by the attack.
Respecting to the attack, International world made n conference to resolving the East Mallaca dispute. The conference held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia on 15-20 April 1949 with the representation in third sides. In resulting of the independence of this independent nation. This conference known as Indonesia-Karasem Inter Conference.
Inspired by 'Serangan Oemoem 1 Maret' in Yogyakarta, the last power of republicans try to taken over the Meriah from NK on 16 May 1949 . The Dutch were expelled from the city for 18 hours but reinforcements were brought in from the nearby cities of Kemayoran and Cakung that afternoon. This attack leaded by General Ahmad Amril i from 7.00 am until 1.00 am next day.
The final of these things is the Independence admission from Dutch for Netherland Karasem which changed into Karasem in 27 December 1949. The territory of the Karasem at thet time is all current territory excluding North Karasem Province.
Dispute in Eastern Malacca
After the admission of independence, majority of the people disastified with the result of the admission as people want Karasem become part of newly formed RIS. The result of these disastify were protest and strike everywhere causing major chaos in national wide. Even in 1950, more than 32 protest spreaded nationwide.
Worse part was Karasem used UUD 1945 as their constitution. This one made the dispute worser since UUD 1945 was made as Indonesian constitution by PPKI back in 18 August 1945. This case formed by the background that at that time, Karasem was part of Indonesia.
In 8 June 1954 Karasem parlement leader formed a msjor national meeting to disscuss a new constitution so that both country constitution wasn't same anymore. The major national meeting also invited few representative from RI cabinets to disscuss the constitution and the teritory.
The Presidential Liberal
Presidential Liberal era lasted from 1954 to 1962.
Provinces and Districts (Kabupaten)
Karasem has 11 Provinces (Cikulon, Southern Cikulon, Cibebek, Ketapang, Sothern Sumut, Northern Sumut, West Jaya, East Jaya, South Melaka, North Melaka, Melaka Archipelago). Th
- under work (obviously)